What is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones deteriorate or become brittle and fragile due to low bone mass and bone tissue loss. The condition is often referred to as a “silent disease” because you cannot feel your bones getting weaker, and many people don’t even know they have the condition until after they break a bone. It increases the risk of fractures, particularly of the hips, spine, and wrists. In fact, osteoporosis causes an estimated 9 million fractures each year worldwide.
Osteoporosis is Serious
Breaking a bone is a serious complication of osteoporosis, especially with older patients. Osteoporotic bone breaks are most likely to occur in the hip, spine or wrist, but other bones can break too. In addition to causing permanent pain, osteoporosis causes some patients to lose height. When osteoporosis affects vertebrae, or the bones of the spine, it often leads to a stooped or hunched posture. It may limit mobility, which often leads to feelings of isolation or depression. Additionally, twenty percent of seniors who break a hip die within one year from either complications related to the broken bone itself or the surgery to repair it. Some patients require long-term nursing home care.
Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
Some people who develop osteoporosis have several risk factors, but others have none. Some risk factors are inherent and cannot be changed. These factors include:
Risk Factors You Can’t Change
- Being a woman, particularly in your postmenopausal years
- Having a family history of fractures
- Being age 50 or older
- Having small or thin bones
- Being Caucasian or Asian
- Having low estrogen levels (from menopause or missing menstrual periods) in women, or low testosterone in men
Risks Factors need to care for Prevention for Osteoporosis
- Avoiding Drinking Alcohol
- Following a Healthy
- Performing Weight-Bearing Exercise
- Anorexia or bulimia
- Dietary deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D
- Lack of exercise
Although a diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on the results of your bone mineral density scan (DEXA or DXA scan), the decision about what treatment you need, if any, is also based on a number of other factors. These include your age,sex and risk of fracture along with previous injury history
Bisphosphonates: Bisphosphonates will slow the rate that bone is broken down in your body. This maintains bone density and reduces the risk of fracture. They’re given as a tablet or injection.
You should always take bisphosphonates on an empty stomach with a full glass of water. Stand or sit upright for 30 minutes after taking them. You’ll also need to wait between 30 minutes and 2 hours before eating food or drinking any other fluids.
Bisphosphonates usually take 6 to 12 months to work, and you may need to take them for 5 years or longer. You may also be prescribed calcium and vitamin D supplements to take at a different time to the bisphosphonate.
Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs):
SERMs are medications that have a similar effect on bone as the hormone oestrogen. They help to maintain bone density and reduce the risk of fracture; particularly of the spine. Raloxifene is the only type of SERM available for treating osteoporosis. It’s taken as a daily tablet.
Parathyroid hormone (teriparatide): Parathyroid hormone is produced naturally in the body. It regulates the amount of calcium in bone.
Parathyroid hormone treatments (human recombinant parathyroid hormone or teriparatide) are used to stimulate cells that create new bone (osteoblasts). They’re given by injection.
While other medication can only slow down the rate of bone thinning, parathyroid hormone can increase bone density. However, it’s only used in a small number of people whose bone density is very low and when other treatments aren’t working.
Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of the treatment. Parathyroid hormone treatments should only be prescribed by a specialist.
Calcium and vitamin D supplements: Calcium is the major mineral found in bone, and having enough calcium as part of a healthy, balanced diet is important for maintaining healthy bones. For most healthy adults, the recommended amount of calcium is 700 milligrams (mg) of calcium a day, which most people should be able to get from a varied diet that contains good sources of calcium.Vitamin D is needed to help the body absorb calcium. All adults should consume 10 micrograms of vitamin D. Because vitamin D is found in only a small number of foods, it might be difficult to get enough from your diet alone – so all adults should consider taking a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms of vitamin D.
Osteoporosis is very common in elderly or post menopausal cases due to hormones imbalance. Incidentally fracture and bone pains and other problems are common, Consultations with a gynaecologist is very much needed. Dr Geeta Rustagi is a certified Postmenopausal specialist at Triveni Multi speciality Hospital in Gurugam . This hospital has facility to care for the Osteoporotic. You may contact and make a prior appointment. There are many health problems and a few medical procedures that increase the likelihood of osteoporosis. If you have any of these diseases or